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Condition: Fine. Dust Jacket Condition: Near Fine. First Edition. This fine unmarked copy is bound in cloth covered boards with bright gilt titling to the spine, tight, white, bright and square. The unclipped dust wrapper has some minimal edge wear so best described and near fine condition.
International postal rates are calculated on a book weighing 1 Kilo, in cases where the book weighs less then postage will be reduced accordingly. Before a decade passed, Germany had supplanted Russia as the main threat in the Pacific and the treaty continued to be beneficial to both the British and Japanese, so it was extended. When the war started, Japan had one of the largest navies in the world, including twenty-one battleships and twenty-nine cruisers. Less than a week after the start of the war, Japan proposed that, in return for German territories in the Far East and its Pacific Islands, Japan would join the Allies.
HyperWar: US Naval Admin in WW II: History of Convoy and Routing [Chapter III]
When Britain requested that the Japanese navy help patrol the eastern Pacific, Japan agreed and declared war on Germany and Austria-Hungary on August 23, With the Japanese patrolling in the Pacific, the British Royal Navy was able to move more of its ships from the east to the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea as well as bolster the Grand Fleet at Scapa Flow, north of Scotland, where it could keep the Kaiser's main fleet bottled up in German ports.
The Japanese, also began moving against German possessions in China notably the port city of Tsingtao in northern China and German colonies in the Pacific, occupying the the Mariana, Caroline and Marshall Islands. Their success alarmed the Allies as well as the United States, which, though not at war, viewed the Japanese as threatening their interests in the Pacific. Further discussions yielded a compromise: Japan could have German territories north of the equator.
As the war dragged on, the Japanese navy assumed more and more duties. They ranged much of the Pacific and into the Indian Ocean, hunting German marauders and safeguarding Allied troopships headed for Europe. Japan also supplied Russia from the east with supplies and military equipment, even returning several cruisers they had captured during the Russo-Japanese War. When the United States entered the war, in order to allow American ships to bolster the Royal Navy in the Atlantic Ocean, Japan took over even more responsibility in the Pacific.
By , German and Austrian submarines operating in the Mediterranean were sinking Allied shipping at an alarming rate. During the entire war, the Allies would lose 12 million tons of shipping and a full quarter of that shipping was lost in the Mediterranean Sea. Despite misgivings about the quality of Japanese seamanship based on bigotry and ignorance , the Allies pressured Japan to help out.
What was needed were more escort ships like destroyers. In fact, most of the naval activity during the Great War involved submarines and destroyers, while the large warships of both sides-- the dreadnaughts and battle cruisers-- spent most of the war in port deterring each other. The slaughter on the Western Front meant that a constant stream of reinforcements was needed. If the Mediterranean route was squeezed shut, French and British Empire troops would have to go all the way around the southern tip of Africa. During their patrols, Japanese destroyers engaged German and Austrian submarines 34 times.
Two of their destroyers were damaged. Despite the damage, she remained afloat and was repaired. Additional Japanese destroyers joined the Second Special Squadron and two old British destroyers were manned by Japanese sailors. At its peak strength, the squadron numbered seventeen warships. The British quickly came to recognize and value the professional and efficient manner of the Japanese.
About American Heritage
French warships were under way 45 percent of the time; British warships were at sea 60 percent of the time. The Japanese were at sea an astounding 72 percent of the time, in effect making more warships available. By the end of the war, the Second Special Squadron had escorted ships across the Mediterranean, safely transporting more than , troops to the Western Front. Reportedly, several Japanese commanders committed Hari-Kari after ships under their protection were lost.
The Japanese were lavishly praised for their performance in the Mediterranean by British leaders. Winston Churchill, who as First Lord of the Admiralty when the war started, had been a driving force behind British and Japanese naval cooperation. Although he fell from grace because of the Gallipoli disaster and spent time in the trenches, by the end of the war, his reputation had been restored and he had been appointed Minister of Munitions.
Summing up the general feeling, he stated that he " did not think that the Japanese [squadron] had ever done a foolish thing. As part of their spoils of war, they took with them seven German submarines. As the three Great Powers-- Great Britain, France and the United States-- decided the fate of the world during the Versailles Treaty negotiations, many countries felt short-changed or humiliated.
Despite all the words of praise and the confirmation that they could keep their German possessions, the Japanese were rebuffed when they tried to get a racial equality clause inserted into the treaty. The Americans and Europeans appreciated the Japanese help, but they weren't ready to treat them as equals. That the Japanese were arrogant and bent on taking every advantage to further their own ends is uncontested and they were a source of irritation to the Western powers carving up the world among themselves.
In addition, with the Russians and Germans out of the world picture, the British no longer needed the Japanese navy and the Anglo-Japanese Alliance lapsed. At the same time, Japan turned to German expertise to incorporate the seven captured U-Boats into their navy and a relationship blossomed. German technology and influence filled the void the British left behind.
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Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites. Your article is really interesting, and has been a big help when learning about Japan in WW1- I didn't even know they were apart of it! I worry though; how credible is this information? From where and how did you obtain it? Thanks MJFenn. I will add, though, that every country on either side, had their own self-interests at heart and the war served to instill national identities to the Australian, New Zealanders and Canadians as never before, though, as you point out, at a terrible cost.
The Canadians, for example, were considered by the Germans as fierce storm troops. As such, Canadians were sometimes deployed as decoys to draw German troops away from areas where actual attacks were launched. The political repercussions of the British Imperialists in treating Canadians as Colonial canon fodder, were to make the Canadian government determined to act more independently. It should come as no surprise that the Japanese Allies acted similarly, but with a military build up, instead of running down the military, as happened in Canada between the wars.
Hi justthemessenger. I don't know whether I'm a history nerd or a history geek, but I know what you mean when you say you enjoy coming across little-known historical facts. Thanks for the comment. A wealth of information concerning a little known contribution in the first world war.
A history nerd like me enjoys this type of hub. Before reading this, I knew Japan was in WW1 but didn't know how they were involved. Hello, Alphapx. I am trying to remedy my relative ignorance of Asian history my niche is American and European history. I enjoy unearthing historical truths that give people pause and challenge their preconceived ideas of what happened in the past. I always learn something myself. As I mentioned earlier, the unknown to me fact that the Japanese fought in the Mediterranean aroused my interest and led to the understanding that Japan's experience during the peace negotiations was probably a factor that led them to "switch sides" 25 years later-- though make no mistake, I'm not excusing the atrocities they committed.
Thank you for reading and commenting. Marilyn, thanks so much for your comment. Sometimes I spend as much time looking for images as I do writing a first draft. I am always careful to use only public domain images and sometimes they are hard to find, but I think they add a lot to articles. Many times, however, I have not used images that would be perfect because I can't verify they are in the public domain.
This is a touching story of us Asians. I have never known this in my school days. I thought Japanese were that monster when they conquered our country Philippines. They were once a member of Allied Force. Wow, what an awesome informative page! I love the photographs you acquired, and thank you so very much for sharing this vital portion of history!
There was quite a difference between Japan and the Mediterranean, what a crazy adaptability they must have experienced. I guess it is up to those of us who are interested in things like this to research and provide the information to give credit where it is due. That was a time when Japan proved to be a great help in battle! You are so right, Jay. Remember when the Soviet Union was a loyal ally and then they weren't? Allies are allies when there is a need or it's convenient to both governments. Thank you, Kawi. But you know, they were very small And, you know, the hull was like a quarter of an inch thick or something.
And uh, that was almost exclusively our duty. We did occasionally go on what they called "hunter killer" groups where they just But most of the time we were escorting convoys across the Atlantic to So, yeah, no, we were escorts. I was an engineer; I was a motor machinist's mate which was a rate that maintained mainly the big diesel engines, but almost all of the other machinery. Some of us were specialized; one of our men, he's in one of our pictures, was a refrigeration specialist.
ISBN 13: 9780356080611
I was primarily with the main engines, and my battle station was with the main engines, and my watch station was I was the leading first class, and, I was strictly, almost strictly after a while, with the main engines, which were huge sixteen v sixteen diesels, and pretty impressive, especially when you-when you feel that And everybody had to be a very quick study.
There was always a few regular Navy people there to sorta break us in.
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But , They you know, when I met the captain later, way after the war, and he talked about the first trip when the ship left the Boston Navy Yard on a, on a shakedown to go to Bermuda, and there was a storm. And he's on watch in the middle of the night, and he's the officer of the deck.
The captain who put the ship into commission was actually a commander who was a mustang; he had risen from the ranks. And so he woke the captain and said, "Geez, you know the terrible storm da da da da da der. You're the officer of the deck and that's it. But that's, that's the way it was, you know? There were more than just more than five hundred destroyer escorts, not to talk about the thousands of other ships that had to be manned. You know they ended up with millions of people. It varied. We had There was That also varied. Well, one of the, one of the convoys that we brought in this was in the Mediterranean, was about Well, it was just the battle of UGS Uh, the United States Gibraltar Convoy.
Well, because the longer And uh, I'm glad you had to clarify that. Anyhow, they -when this attack was imminent, we uh And the coffin corner, depending on who on the ship you spoke to - because we always had these kinds of interpretations - some would say, well, we're in the coffin corner cause we're the best, and they always try Others would say, well we're the least worthy and they don't care if they get rid of us first.
We're expendable, see? But the coffin corner was really a very important spot.