When we are satisfied on this point, we must unravel difficulties as we can. We shall do well always to bear in mind, that they may, in most cases, lie in our own want of collateral information; but we must never think of rejecting whole passages, as spurious, merely because we find in them some points which we cannot clearly understand or explain. The first argument advanced, is the well-known chronological difficulty of our Saviour's age, as referred to the death of Herod, and the reign of Tiberius. Our Saviour, Luke iii, 1.
Reckoning from the death of Augustus, which occurred A. Thus his birth is referred to A. On the other hand, he was born at least a year and an half before Herod's death; Herod's death cannot have been later than the spring of A. Therefore, our Saviour cannot have been born later than the autumn of A.
Thus there is a discrepancy of three years. This difficulty has been weighed by numbers of learned men. Usher, Capellus, Prideaux, Pearce, and others, have explained it by dating Tiberius's reign from a period antecedent, by three years, to the death of Augustus. They have found, on the authority of Paterculus and Dio, that Augustus actually took Tiberius into partnership three years before his death; and that, in point of fact, there has been this two-fold computation of Tiberius's reign.
Others have founded an explanation on the general terms in which St. Luke mentions our Saviour's age at the beginning of his ministry. By either method the difficulty becomes too unimportant to have any serious weight attached to it. The objectors are pleased to call this apparent discrepancy 'a fact which invalidates the whole narration. Chronological difficulties have subsisted in the best historians; but it would be the height of injustice and absurdity to consider these as invalidating the truth of their general relations.
The annotators proceed to object, that 'it is highly improbable no notice should have been taken of these extraordinary events by any contemporary writer; that no expectation should have been excited by them, and no allusion be made to them in any other passage of the sacred writings.
It is allowed to be highly remarkable that so little allusion should be found, in contemporary writers, to the circumstances of our Saviour's ministry; but it is in no degree more remarkable that the events of his birth are thus passed over, than that his miracles, his sufferings, and death, are so. That so little expectation should have been excited by the striking events of our Saviour's nativity, and by the arrival of the magi from the east, is singular, no doubt.
It is still more singular that so little expectation should have been excited by his heavenly doctrines, his astonishing miracles, his power of suspending the course of nature. We account for the facts by the excessive blindness and stubborn prejudices of the Jews amongst whom he appeared.
Again, if if [sic] we could allow that 'no allusion is made to these events in any other passage of the sacred writings,' we should, by no means, allow that this applies as an objection to the miraculous birth exclusively. Many highly important facts of our Saviour's history are not alluded to in other parts of the sacred writings.
But, far from conceding the point, we positively aver that most frequent allusion is made to the accounts of his supernatural birth. We affirm that this fact is implied throughout his whole history; that it is implied wherever he is spoken of as being God himself, and the Son of God; that it is supposed and understood in the whole doctrine of the atonement. We maintain, likewise, that when we read Gal. We perceive that these translators think proper to pervert, to other meanings, all the sentences by which the doctrines of the Divinity of our Saviour, and of the atonement, are proved.
But what a system is this! They urge an objection which they do not find, but themselves create. They so explain and interpret Scripture as to make it contain no confirmation of the narrative of the miraculous birth, and then produce, as an argument against this narrative, that it is wholly unsupported by other passages of Scripture. We maintain the consistency of the whole. We affirm that, as this narration rests on authority the most clear and indisputable, so its truth is confirmed by the whole tenor, the plain understanding and obvious drift of all the sacred writings.
They proceed to tell us, that 'some of the facts have a fabulous appearance, and the reasoning, from the prophecies of the Old Testament, is inconclusive—also, that if this account be true, the proper name of Jesus, according to the uniform custom of the Jews, would have been Jesus of Bethlehem, not Jesus of Nazareth. In this assertion, that 'many of the facts have a fabulous appearance,' we have to lament that a departure is made from all  semblance of real argument, and recourse had to vague and un intelligible insinuation.
We presume the meaning to be, that the facts bear internal marks of being fictions, May we not ask, what these marks are? Do not all the facts of our Saviour's history, his several miracles, his resurrection, bear the same fabulous appearance? We know not how far these persons may carry their scepticism; but this we know, that they would only act in perfect consistency with what they here advance, if they deemed all that our Saviour taught and did, to be 'cunningly devised fable.
We perceive here, as in other parts of the Gospels, accommodations of expressions from the Old Testament to the events which the Evangelists were recording; and applications of prophecies, which, referring in their immediate sense to some parts of Jewish history, respected these Christian events in their more remote and secondary sense; but we are wholly at a loss to discover the 'inconclusive reasoning' here mentioned.
Again: as to Christ's being named from Nazareth although he was actually born at Bethlehem,—His family had been settled at Nazareth; his supposed parents were known there; he was there educated and brought up; his fame first spread from thence, and in that vicinity his earliest miracles were wrought: how, then, is it otherwise than conformable with general custom and propriety that he should have received his title from that place? But we are, lastly, told 'our Lord is repeatedly spoken of as the son of Joseph, without any intimation, on the part of the historian, that this language is incorrect.
In one, John i. In another, John vi. In two others, Luke iv. Where then is the slightest ground for the argument intended by these objectors? In the last case, the title is qualified and explained; in all the rest, it is applied from the ignorance, or the malice, of his hearers.
After this string of unsupported objections, advanced with all the confidence of bold assertion, it is pretended that the spuriousness of these narratives of the miraculous conception is fully proved; and it is affirmed, that 'they were probably the fiction of some early Gentile convert, who hoped, by elevating the dignity of the founder, to abate the popular prejudice against the sect. The Gospels were read in the different churches from the earliest times, and copies widely dispersed. Would the Evangelists themselves have concurred in such a forgery? Would Christians of all countries, sects, and opinions, have been willing, silently, and at once, to adopt it?
Would history have preserved no record of such an alteration in the code of Christian faith? Would no doubts or suspicions have remained in the minds of any? Would no enemies of Christianity have heard of such an interpolation, and gladly have exposed it? Would the contending sects of Christians never have urged it against each other, in the heat of religious warfare? We could even produce, if we deemed it necessary, passages from these narratives themselves, which, it is highly improbable, would have come from the hand of a forger.
But, we apprehend, the case is too clear, and our readers must be too well satisfied on the subject, to require any further statement or illustration. The length of the preceding remarks imposes on us the necessity of being brief in what we have next to offer. We have stated already, that, in passages where no doctrines are concerned, these translators deviate in no important degree from the text of Newcome.
They sometimes succeed, sometimes fail, in expressing a tense or a preposition more accurately than he has done. But, upon the whole, their version, as to the plain parts of the narrative, possesses no decided character of difference from his. As to their translation of passages for the support of their peculiar doctrines, we have stated already, that, even if our limits would at all permit, we should deem it superfluous to restate all the arguments by which the tenets of the Socinian creed have  been long since refuted, merely because an attempt is here made to support them with as much confidence as if no such refutation had ever taken place.
We subjoin a few of the many passages which we had noted for animadversion. In the account of our Saviour's temptation Matt. See Revel, i. Acts, xi. John is describing his vision: 'I was in the spirit,' he says on the Lord's day. These forms of expression are so decidedly different from that of the Evangelist, as to afford no analogy whatever. They, in their plain and obvious sense, describe visionary scenes. The expression of the Evangelist, in its most obvious sense, certainly marks out a real scene, a positive action of our Saviour, his going into the desert, by the guidance, or at the suggestion, of the spirit.
We are not entering into the question of the reality of the temptation, but are merely pointing out what we deem an instance of bad reasoning. They remark, in opposition to what they call the harsh doctrine of eternal punishment, that 'the word here translated everlasting is often used to express a long but indefinite duration. The words, John, i. It is worthy of observation, how much these annotators increase in boldness of assertion, as they advance; at first, they are content to affirm that never bears this signification in the New Testament, but afterwards roundly assure us, that it no where admits of this sense.
Let us examine the justice of these assertions. The early Christian fathers used the word in this sense. Among others, Justin Martyr has 'By whom heaven and earth, and the whole creation or every creature was made. We find too, in the Septuagint, Gen. But we can also shew, that, even in the New Testament, the word is thus used. To assert that the word occurs very frequently in the New Testament in other senses, is merely to assert what was never disputed.
It in no degree tends to prove, either that it never bore the sense of creation, or that it does not bear it in the passages before us. But, what is very important, we can shew that it was so understood, in the earliest times, by persons who were, of course, best able to ascertain the received meaning. Not only was the opinion that the world was created by the Sou of God, most generally maintained by the orthodox primitive church, but we know that Justin, Athenagoras, Irenaus, and others, actually inferred this opinion from these very texts of St.
John xvii. Had there been the article before , then, by understanding in the later member of the sentence as in the former, it would have borne this interpretation; but, as the original stands, the translation is inconsistent with the propriety of language. Newcome's translation agrees with the received 'That they may know thee, the only true God, and him whom thou hast sent, even Jesus Christ.
On the occasion of St. Stephen's praying to Christ Acts,. Stephen prayed to Jesus, not actually present, as one human being is present to another, but visible at a distance by the 'opening of the heavens. We hence therefore infer that our Saviour partakes of these divine qualities; and on this inference depends the propriety of addressing our prayers to him at all times. If he is so pre-eminent in his nature, that it was proper to pray to him when visible in the heavens, he must be a proper object of adoration, when he is invisible.
The context fully proves and confirms this meaning, by adding, 'For to him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth. Amongst other reasons for this they observe that he does not say 'by him were created heaven and earth,' but 'things in heaven and things on earth. Amongst the things in heaven, must undoubtedly be reckoned the sun, and other heavenly bodies: amongst the things on earth, man, with all the animal and vegetable tribes.
Let it be granted that our Saviour is here called the creator of all these, and nothing further will be required. Enough perhaps has been said to shew that we lean with no great feelings of respect towards the persons concerned in bringing forward the present publication. We are entirely ignorant of their characters, except as here displayed. It is our wish to speak with liberality and mildness of all who dissent from us in religious opinion. We are aware that many do so from the purest motives.
We honour the man who searches the Scriptures with a candid desire of discovering religious truth. We believe that, within the pale of the Unitarian church, are to be found many individuals of unfeigned piety and unimpeached morality. But, with these general feelings on the subject of religious dissension, we should be wanting to our duty if we withheld the language of just animadversion, whenever we perceived that character of bold misrepresentation, and of uncandid artifice, by which the road to truth must ever be obstructed.
What would be the consequence, if all sects of Christians were to have recourse to means of advancing their doctrines similar to those here employed? Exactly on the same principle, the Papist, the Calvinist, the Baptist, might each publish a version of the New Testament, for the support of his peculiar tenets, boldly perverting to his own sense any text he pleased, and marking passages as doubtful, contrary to the evidence of all MSS.
We protest most strongly against the admission of a principle, which, in its application and extension, has the effect of falsifying all the records of our holy faith. We see noticed, in the introduction, the great liberality of numerous subscribers who have contributed to defray the expense of the work. We are far from hastily imputing to them the blame of designedly encouraging a publication so conducted. Many may have been deceived by the specious title.
We might ourselves have subscribed to 'an improved version of the New Testament, formed on the basis of Archbishop Newcome's, and proceeding from a Society for promoting Christian Knowledge. Is the public to infer, that he has been a contributor to the production of this version?
If so, has he been deceived by the title, or has he lent his approbation to a work so conducted? We merely throw out these questions for the consideration of that nobleman and his friends. As the insinuations made in this work, together with similar observations, which have come from other quarters, may tend unduly to shake the confidence of the public in our received version of the Scriptures, we wish, before we close, to say a few words on this subject.
The established version prefers great and various claims to our respect. The history of the manner in which it was prepared, stamps on it no light value and authority. It was the production of the collected learning of the age—an age, by the bye, far superior in weight of biblical erudition to our own. Numbers of the most eminent men were employed upon it for upwards of three years.
Portions of the work were severally assigned to different societies of these, and afterwards submitted to the careful revision and correction of the rest. Persons were invited from all parts of the kingdom to communicate the result of their critical labours. Advantage was taken, not only of all preceding English versions, but also of all the foreign, ancient and modern. And its general intrinsic excellency well corresponds with what might be expected from this account of its preparation.
It is unrivalled as a faithful translation, conveying not merely the meaning of the sacred writers, but their very style, manner, and expression. It admirably combines dignity with plainness. It addresses itself to every understanding by its general perspicuity and clearness. Without the slightest attempt at assuming a forced elevation by swelling or affected words, it never sinks into a degree of meanness which degrades the subject. We think that, in one respect, it has even improved since its first appearance.
Many words and turns of expression have become obsolete, just in that degree which is desirable; that is, have somewhat receded from vulgar use, without ceasing to be fully intelligible. Thus the Scriptures have acquired a language more peculiarly their own; all approaches to colloquial familiarity have been destroyed, and much has been gained in gravity, while nothing has been lost in perspicuity. Another point should be well considered in any question of altering the established version: our ears have become habituated to the present language, as the language of Scripture.
We have known, and heard, and repeated it, as such, from our childhood. It is the garb in which we have always seen the word of God arrayed, and which we therefore deem most appropriate and becoming. The very words and phrases have now become associated with our feelings of piety, and acquired, in our ideas, a degree of sanctity and solemnity, to which no other form, or combination of forms can hope to attain. Add to this, that many well-educated persons would feel their prejudices violated by a change, and require some exertion of their reason to reconcile themselves to it, while a very serious alarm might spread among the vulgar and illiterate from what, perhaps, would appear to them an impious attempt at altering the word of God.
No one will urge this as a bar to any alteration under any circumstance: it behoves every considerate person, however, to take largely into the account the influence of these innocent prejudices and associations. In mentioning the general excellencies of our established version, we meant not to disallow some partial imperfections. Grammatical errors have been pointed out; passages too in which the meaning of the original is not quite correctly rendered, in which the sense of words has been changed, or in which the  expression is somewhat harsh, or vulgar.
Ambiguities have likewise been noticed, but we must observe, that often where the phrase is ambiguous in strictness, no doubt arises in point of fact. Symonds cites, 'perhaps, the strongest instance of wrong translation. But, in preparing a new authorized version, who should be our guides?
How could we agree in the persons to be employed, and how would they agree in their mode of proceeding? Have not the most learned critics differed widely in opinion? Would it not be probable that we should find more persons dissatisfied with any new translation we could make, than with the present? Amongst the attempts that have been hazarded, strange specimens are to be found. Purver translates John, xviii. Also, in the transfiguration, Matt. Hey, 'whether new translators are likely to render some parts better than they were before; but whether, upon the whole , they are likely to produce a better translation.
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JSON What's this? As you're browsing RC, you might see small buttons scattered on various pages. These buttons let you download that page's content in a ready-to-use data file! Learn more on our RC Data page. With the conquest of the Mamluk empire in , the Ottomans ruled over the most powerful state in the Islamic world. Art of the Pleasure Quarters and the Ukiyo-e Style. For the first time, artists were inspired by and responded to the interests and preferences of the general public.
Art of the Roman Provinces, 1— A. Art demonstrates both the scope and the limits of Roman influence, for the circulation of materials, methods, objects, and art forms created a certain cultural unity, and yet in each place, the persistence of local customs ensured the survival of cultural diversity. The Art of the Safavids before The Art of the Seljuq Period in Anatolia — The Art of the Seljuqs of Iran ca.
Under the Seljuq sultanate, Iran enjoyed a period of material and cultural prosperity, and the ingenuity in architecture and the arts during this period had a notable impact on later artistic developments. Art of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries in Naples. The Art of the Timurid Period ca. Timurid rulers were sympathetic to Persian culture and lured artists, architects, and men of letters who would contribute to their high court culture. The Art of the Umayyad Period — The Art of the Umayyad Period in Spain — Of works of art and other material culture only coins and scant ceramic fragments remain from this early period of the Umayyad governors — As a beehive of building and production, the city provides many insights into ancient industry and technology, from construction, to manufacture of glass and faience, to statuary and textile production, to bread making.
A rigid guild system maintained high standards of craftsmanship and regulated the process of gilt-bronze manufactory. Arthur Dove — Dove created a number of inventive works of art that used stylized, abstract forms at a remarkably early date in American art; he is considered the first American artist to have created such purely nonrepresentational imagery. Artistic Interaction among Cultures in Medieval Iberia. During the medieval period, peoples of three faiths—Islam, Christianity, and Judaism—inhabited this land, undertaking sustained and intensive interactions that proved especially fruitful for the visual arts.
Artists of the Saqqakhana Movement s—60s. The Arts and Crafts Movement in America. Arts and Crafts designers sought to improve standards of decorative design, believed to have been debased by mechanization, and to create environments in which beautiful and fine workmanship governed. The Arts of Iran, — Arts of Power Associations in West Africa. The Arts of the Book in the Islamic World, — Arts of the Mission Schools in Mexico. Only a very few examples of the earliest Christian feather mosaics survive, as the medium is so inherently fragile; only a fraction retain a semblance of their original radiant colors.
Arts of the San People in Nomansland. Many of the figures have features, such as blood from the nose or divining switches, that indicate they are depictions of San shamans. Arts of the Spanish Americas, — The church not only exerted enormous power over the lives of the European and indigenous peoples, but also, through its patronage, profoundly influenced the nature of the visual arts in these regions.
Asante Royal Funerary Arts. Women who had difficulty conceiving children visited burial grounds and left offerings in the hope that the spirits of the deceased would intercede on their behalf. Asante Textile Arts. The Ashcan School. Ignoring or registering only gently harsh new realities such as the problems of immigration and urban poverty, they shone a positive light on their era.
Asher Brown Durand — He fashioned progressively vivid compositions typically of woodland interiors, culminating in masterpieces of organic verisimilitude.
The Asmat. The Asmat believe that there is a close relationship between humans and trees, and recognize wood as the source of life. Assyria, — B. After several centuries of obscurity and even loss of independence from around B. The Assyrian Sculpture Court. The Raymond and Beverly Sackler Assyrian Sculpture Court Gallery showcases sculptures from the Assyrian capital city of Nimrud ancient Kalhu in a space designed to evoke their original palace setting. Astronomy and Astrology in the Medieval Islamic World.
Asuka and Nara Periods — Their pictorial decorations provide insights into many aspects of Athenian life, and complement the literary texts and inscriptions from the Archaic and, especially, Classical periods. Athletics in Ancient Greece. Augustan Rule 27 B. The Augustan Villa at Boscotrecase. While earlier artists focused on creating an illusion of architectural depth with solid architectural forms, the artists at Boscotrecase presented the idea with whimsical, attenuated, and highly refined elements. Auguste Renoir — Famed for his sensual nudes and charming scenes of pretty women, Auguste Renoir was a far more complex and thoughtful painter than generally assumed.
Auguste Rodin — Augustus Saint-Gaudens — Aztec Stone Sculpture. Aztec stone sculpture is the culmination of a long Mesoamerican tradition in the carving of stone—from ordinary volcanic rock to highly prized semi-precious stones such as jade—into objects and monuments of all sorts. The Ballet. Ballet technique, like other classical Baroque figurative arts, favored symmetry, dynamic balance, and the harmony of the entire body. Barbarians and Romans. Promises of Roman citizenship and military and economic support encouraged barbarian leaders to assist their wealthy neighbor, primarily by providing troops.
They shared a recognition of landscape as an independent subject, a determination to exhibit such paintings at the conservative Salon, and a mutually reinforcing pleasure in nature. Baroque Rome. Baroque architects, artists, and urban planners so magnified and invigorated the classical and ecclesiastical traditions of the city that it became for centuries after the acknowledged capital of the European art world.
The Batak. Although today we think of bathing as a private activity, the public bath, or hammam , was a vital social institution in any Middle Eastern city for centuries before the advent of modern plumbing. The Bauhaus, — Its core objective was a radical concept: to reimagine the material world to reflect the unity of all the arts. Benin Chronology. Brass commemorative heads are commissioned by each oba king in the first years of his reign to honor his immediate predecessor.
Bessie Potter Vonnoh — The Bikini. Simply defined, the bikini is an abbreviated two-piece swimsuit with a bra top and panties cut below the navel. Broadly defined, the bikini represents a social leap involving body consciousness, moral concerns, and sexual attitudes. Birds of the Andes. Andean people attentively observed the natural world, and the various roles attributed to birds in religions and artistic representations often seem to derive from their properties and behaviors in nature. Birth and Family in the Italian Renaissance. Italian piety and Italian art of the late Middle Ages and after tended to stress the Incarnation narrative, the sequence of events surrounding his birth, and the events of the Passion, the sufferings of his final week on earth.
The Birth of Islam.
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Blackwater Draw ca. Blackwater Draw in eastern New Mexico, which evidences human activity from about to B. Blown Glass from Islamic Lands. Glassblowing enabled craftsmen to create vessels quickly and in a wide range of shapes, making glassware affordable and available. At the same time that some sculptors turned outward toward the wider landscape, others turned in upon their own bodies as both the subject and object of sculptural activity. From the fourteenth to the mid-sixteenth century, more books of hours were made than any other type of book. Boscoreale: Frescoes from the Villa of P.
Fannius Synistor. The fact that the mid-first-century B. Botanical Imagery in European Painting. The use of botanical imagery in painting proliferated especially in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, as artists became increasingly interested in the realistic depiction of objects from the natural world. Bronze Sculpture in the Renaissance. Many European cities had bronze foundries, but Florence saw the first true flowering of bronze sculpture.
Bronze Statuettes of the American West, — Buddhism and Buddhist Art.
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The Gupta period, from the fourth to the sixth century A. Building Stories: Contextualizing Architecture at the Cloisters. There are, to this date, architectural elements at The Cloisters whose original location remains unknown. Burgundian Netherlands: Court Life and Patronage. Burgundian Netherlands: Private Life. Though the Burgundian court was the single most important artistic patron during the period, private citizens were no less interested in using art to express their spiritual concerns and personal ambitions.
Byzantine Art under Islam. Mirroring the political climate, art became a medium of confrontation and cooperation between the two sides. The Byzantine City of Amorium. Amorium was one of the largest and most important cities in Anatolia during the early Middle Ages, becoming in the second half of the seventh century the capital of the Byzantine province or theme of Anatolikon. Byzantine Ivories. The allure of this substance is easily understood: its smooth, tactile quality and creamy color made it ideal for the creation of luxury goods. Justinian drew upon administrators and counselors from outside the aristocratic class.
His own modest origins, along with his selection of these court members, contributed to lasting tensions with the Byzantine nobility. Byzantium ca. Calligraphy in Islamic Art. Objects from different periods and regions vary in the use of calligraphy in their overall design, demonstrating the creative possibilities of calligraphy as ornament. Cameo Appearances. Candace Wheeler — Capac Hucha as an Inca Assemblage. Caravaggio Michelangelo Merisi — and His Followers. Caravaggio pushed the figures up against the picture plane and used light to enhance the dramatic impact and give the figures a quality of immediacy.
Carolingian Art. Carpets from the Islamic World, — Within the Islamic world, especially fine specimens were collected in royal households. Cave Sculpture from the Karawari. Preserved in the [Kawawari] caves for generations, some of the carvings are between and years old, making them the oldest surviving examples of wood sculpture from New Guinea. Ceramics in the French Renaissance. Having closely observed the locomotion of animals, [Palissy] transformed the slithering or coiling of snakes into motifs that invigorated his clay compositions.
While evidence for large-scale warfare during the second millennium B. Charles Eames — and Ray Eames — From their architecture, furniture, and textile designs to their photography and corporate design, the husband-and-wife team exerted a profound influence on the visual character of daily life in America, whether at work or at home. Charles Frederick Worth — and the House of Worth.
With his talent for design and promotion, Charles Frederick Worth built his design house into a huge business during the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Charles James — Never having had formal dressmaking training, [Charles James] developed his own methodology based on mathematical, architectural, and sculptural concepts as they relate to the human body. Charles Sheeler — Chauvet Cave ca. From the archaeological record, it is clear that these animals were rarely hunted; the images are thus not simple depictions of daily life at the time they were made.
Childe Hassam — The man who will go down to posterity is the man who paints his own time and the scenes of every-day life around him. Chinese Buddhist Sculpture. Works with powerful physiques and thin clothing derive from Indian prototypes, while sculptures that feature thin bodies with thick clothing evince a Chinese idiom.
Chinese Calligraphy. Calligraphy, or the art of writing, was the visual art form prized above all others in traditional China. One of the most important considerations in garden design is the harmonious arrangement of elements expressing different aspects of yin and yang. Chinese Handscrolls. Looking at a handscroll that one has seen before is like visiting an old friend whom one has not seen for a while.
Chinese Hardstone Carvings.
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Chinese Painting. The Chopine. Christian Dior — After years of military and civilian uniforms, sartorial restrictions and shortages, Dior offered not merely a new look but a new outlook. Christopher Dresser — Classical Antiquity in the Middle Ages. Even in a ruined state, the baths, aqueducts, and sanctuaries of the classical world provoked the people of the Middle Ages to reflect upon the grandeur of the past. Classical Art and Modern Dress. In depicting details of the distinctive modes of ancient Greek attire, subsequent artists and designers have changed, as much as preserved, the actual qualities of ancient garb.
Classical Cyprus ca. Greek artists and intellectuals were welcomed in Cyprus, although there was always more incentive for Cypriot sculptors, philosophers, and writers to move from Cyprus to the Greek mainland. Classicism in Modern Dress. Claude Monet — Monet found subjects in his immediate surroundings, as he painted the people and places he knew best.
Celebrated by some, deplored by others, these stimulating brews gave rise to a number of important social institutions, such as the coffeehouse, the tea garden, and the ritual of afternoon tea. Collecting for the Kunstkammer. A compilation of remarkable things was attempted as a mirror of contemporary knowledge, regardless of whether those objects were created by the genius of man or the caprice of nature.
Colonial Kero Cups. Colossal Temples of the Roman Near East. Although their exteriors often look like Roman temples, the interior layout of sanctuary buildings was actually very Near Eastern, designed as a throne room for a deity, usually with a raised platform approached by stairs. Because the mask partially or entirely obscured facial expression, emphasis was placed on dialect and exaggerated gesture to convey emotion and intention. Company Painting in Nineteenth-Century India. While in the early phases of this school artists depended on a few key patrons, by the beginning of the nineteenth century, enterprising Indian artists had begun to create sets of standard popular subjects that could be sold to any tourist passing through the major attractions.
Conceptual Art and Photography. In the wake of Abstract Expressionism, a number of painters developed strategies that both extended the life of painting while simultaneously pointing to its inevitable demise. Constantinople after Constantinople was one of the first cities to lose many of its citizens to the Black Death in Contemporary Deconstructions of Classical Dress.
The richness and variety of the costumes represented in ancient Greek art are often the result of simple manipulations of the three basic garment types: the chiton, the peplos, and the himation. Contexts for the Display of Statues in Classical Antiquity. Few statues from antiquity have survived both in situ and intact, but the evidence suggests an ever-changing and expanding range of contexts for their display. Cosmic Buddhas in the Himalayas. For the devout, the veneration of these five [celestial] Buddhas offered a direct path to breaking free of the cycle of rebirth, a goal facilitated by their innumerable manifestations that make up the Himalayan Buddhist pantheon.
Costume in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Costume Institute houses a collection of more than 35, costumes and accessories spanning five continents and just as many centuries, arguably the greatest such collection in the world. The Countess da Castiglione. Fascinated by her own beauty, the countess would attempt to capture all its facets and re-create for the camera the defining moments of her life. Courtly Art of the Ilkhanids.
Members of the Ilkhanid court wore expensive clothes and accessories, whether they were traveling in luxurious tents or settling in one of their palaces for a while. Courtship and Betrothal in the Italian Renaissance. The physical embodiment of desire, these objects often display literary or symbolic representations of the pursuit or attainment of the lover. Cristobal Balenciaga — Balenciaga achieved what is considered to be his most important contribution to the world of fashion: a new silhouette for women. Although Adam had only recently established his practice in London, his new Neoclassical style found a ready and eager audience with the nobility and gentry.
Formidable traditions governed the representation of the Crucifixion and other Passion scenes, and yet Italian painters continually renewed them through creative engagement with established conventions. The Crusades — The Crusaders then took over many of the cities on the Mediterranean coast and built a large number of fortified castles all over the Holy Land to protect their new territories.
The Cubist painters rejected the inherited concept that art should copy nature, or that they should adopt the traditional techniques of perspective, modeling, and foreshortening. Cut and Engraved Glass from Islamic Lands. From Egypt to Iran, Islamic cut and engraved decoration took various forms, ranging from complex relief patterns created using mechanically operated wheels and drills to hair-width incisions made with a pointed tool.
Cyprus—Island of Copper. Cypriot smiths produced some of the finest bronzework in the eastern Mediterranean, most notably tripods and four-sided stands. Daguerre — and the Invention of Photography. From the moment of its birth, photography had a dual character—as a medium of artistic expression and as a powerful scientific tool—and Daguerre promoted his invention on both fronts. The Daguerreian Age in France: — While portraiture was by far the most common subject of daguerreotypes, artists and scientists, explorers and archaeologists all took up the camera and produced pictures unlike any that had been made before.
The daguerreotype process, employing a polished silver-plated sheet of copper, was the dominant form of photography for the first twenty years of picture making in the United States. The Damascus Room. Although most of the woodwork elements date to the early eighteenth century, some elements reflect changes over time in its original historical context, as well as adaptations to its museum setting. Daniel Chester French — Daniel Chester French attained prominence as the leading American monumental sculptor of the early twentieth century.
Daoism and Daoist Art. Over time, Daoism developed into an organized religion—largely in response to the institutional structure of Buddhism—with an ever-growing canon of texts and pantheon of gods, and a significant number of schools with often distinctly different ideas and approaches. David Octavius Hill — and Robert Adamson — In the mids, the Scottish painter-photographer team of Hill and Adamson produced the first substantial body of self-consciously artistic work using the newly invented medium of photography.
Death, Burial, and the Afterlife in Ancient Greece. The Greeks believed that at the moment of death the psyche, or spirit of the dead, left the body as a little breath or puff of wind. The deceased was then prepared for burial according to time-honored rituals. The Decoration of Arms and Armor. It was the use and function of the individual weapon or armor that determined why, how, and to what extent an object was decorated.
The Decoration of European Armor. The Decoration of Tibetan Arms and Armor. The degree of ornamentation and the range of symbols found on Tibetan arms and armor can vary considerably, but generally the same decorative motifs found on other Tibetan objects and works of art, such as furniture, ritual implements, sculpture, and paintings, are seen on arms and armor. Design Reform. Design reformers attempted to help a new and rapidly growing generation of middle-class homemakers create artistic yet healthy homes.
Design, — By the turn of the twentieth century, a new stylistic vocabulary—with distinct regional characteristics—had been firmly established. Whether realistic or abstract, exuberant or restrained, curvilinear or geometric, there was a consistency in the purposeful rejection of outmoded tastes and exploration of new design influences.
New materials and technologies, many of which had been developed during wartime, helped to free design from tradition, allowing for increasingly abstract and sculptural aesthetics as well as lower prices for mass-produced objects. The last quarter of the twentieth century saw a surge of unbridled consumerism manifested in a number of diverse, often contradictory, design currents. The Development of the Recorder. A full family of recorders was needed for playing the notated polyphonic repertory of the period—motets, secular songs, fantasias, canzonas, and arrangements of dances—music made commonly available in the sixteenth century by the invention of music printing in No later than the last quarter of the fifteenth century, Italian sculptors began to use methods to cast bronzes without destroying their original model.
Divination and Senufo Sculpture in West Africa. Diviners invest in the arts to foster personal relationships with the spirit world and enhance communication between nature spirits and humans. Domenichino — Domenichino fully subscribed to the classical notion that painting was like silent poetry and required a stylized expressive vocabulary to be properly understood and deciphered.
Domestic Art in Renaissance Italy. The manufacture of secular art objects, usually for the purpose of commemoration, personalized these lavish Italian Renaissance interiors. Donatello ca. Drawing in the Middle Ages. The study of medieval drawings requires that we both expand and rethink our notion of what a drawing is and how it might be used.
Dressing for the Cocktail Hour. Dualism in Andean Art. Subtly or clearly expressed in art, opposite doubles and mirror images reflect the ancient heritage of symbolic dualism in the ideologies, world visions, and social structures of Andean people. In addition to standing among the most prominent craftsmen of their era, Phyfe and Lannuier have become two of the most recognized names in the field of American decorative art scholarship. Dutch and Flemish Artists in Rome, — Eagles After the American Revolution.
Early Cycladic Art and Culture. Early Cycladic sculpture comprises predominantly female figures that range from simple modification of the stone to developed representations of the human form, some with natural proportions and some more idealized. Early Documentary Photography. Early Dynastic Sculpture, — B. These [Early Dynastic] statues embodied the very essence of the worshipper so that the spirit would be present when the physical body was not. Early Histories of Photography in West Africa — African patrons and entrepreneurs quickly picked up the new technology, which circulated and flourished through local and global networks of exchange.
Photographers, clients, and images moved across the region often traversing both national and ethnic boundaries. Early Maori Wood Carvings. Examples of ancient Maori wood sculpture are rare but a number survive, due, in part, to the practice of hiding valuable carvings by immersing them in swamps during times of unrest. Early Modernists and Indian Traditions. Early modernist artists used a variety of approaches to negotiate between the need to create a national style and a desire to develop personal modes of expression.
Early Netherlandish Painting. Whether they were made as objects for veneration, as records of human existence in a certain time and place, or as adornments for private dwellings or public sites, early Netherlandish paintings reveal the pursuit of a common goal—to make the painted image vividly present and to render the unseen palpable. Early Photographers of the American West: s—70s. Embracing both human enterprise and the natural wonders of California, Watkins created crystalline views of the West that balanced the works of man and nature in an ideal harmony we can only envy today. East and West: Chinese Export Porcelain.
The porcelains were often stored at the lowest level of the ships, both to provide ballast and because they were impervious to water. The strong religious associations of tiger and dragon motifs contributed to their popularity in the fine and decorative arts throughout China, Japan, and Korea. Easter Island. The most recognizable art forms from Easter Island are its colossal stone figures, or moai, images of ancestral chiefs whose supernatural power protected the community.
Eastern Religions in the Roman World. The Roman pantheon presented a wide range of cults and gods with different functions, but foreign cults promised something different, something the traditional Roman cults could not-change, both in everyday life and even, at times, in the afterlife. Ebla in the Third Millennium B. Edgar Degas — : Bronze Sculpture. His sculpture remained a private medium, akin to sketches or drawings, in which Degas, limiting himself to a small range of subjects, explored the problems that fascinated him.
Edgar Degas — : Painting and Drawing. Edo-Period Japanese Porcelain. The porcelain the Dutch brought to Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was some of the first Japanese art to which Europeans were exposed. In ten years, Baldus established the model for photographic representation in genres that barely existed before him. Edward Hopper — Hopper sought and explored his chosen themes: the tensions between individuals particularly men and women , the conflict between tradition and progress in both rural and urban settings, and the moods evoked by various times of day.
Edward J. Steichen — : The Photo-Secession Years. Edward Lycett — Egypt in the Late Period ca. One notable feature of the Late Period is the diversity of religious practices manifest in inscriptions and material remains. Egypt in the Middle Kingdom ca. The Middle Kingdom mid-Dynasty 11—Dynasty 13, ca. Egypt in the New Kingdom ca. Egypt in the Old Kingdom ca. While the origin of many concepts, practices, and monuments can be traced to earlier periods, it was during the Old Kingdom that they developed into the forms that would characterize and influence the rest of pharaonic history.
Egypt in the Ptolemaic Period. Egypt in the Third Intermediate Period ca. The Third Intermediate Period laid the foundation for many changes that are observable in art and culture throughout the first millennium. Egyptian Faience: Technology and Production. In ancient Egypt, objects created with faience were considered magical, filled with the undying shimmer of the sun, and imbued with the powers of rebirth.
Egyptian Modern Art. The first generation of modern Egyptian artists was driven by a renewed appreciation of their national patrimony and the return to ancient pharaonic art detached from any African, Arab, or religious cultural references. Egyptian Red Gold. Alfred Lucas, one of the foremost early researchers in the study of ancient Egyptian technology, correctly surmised that the vast majority of such colorations resulted from fortuitous tarnishing of silver-bearing gold and also recognized correctly that a smaller group of objects bearing a distinctly different red coloration represented another phenomenon altogether.
Egyptian Revival. The vocabulary of ancient Egyptian art would be interpreted and adapted in different ways depending on the standards and motivations of the time. Egyptian Tombs: Life Along the Nile. Eighteenth-Century European Dress. Dress of the eighteenth century is not without anachronisms and exoticisms of its own, but that singular, changing, revolutionizing century has become an icon in the history of fashion.
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The Eighteenth-Century Pastel Portrait. By the eighteenth century, color, not line, became dominant as pastels moved aesthetically closer to painting. Eighteenth-Century Silhouette and Support. Although the iconic silhouette of the eighteenth century is that of the rectangularly panniered, conically corseted court dress, a simpler line of dress launched the era. Eighteenth-Century Women Painters in France. Although many critics applauded their new prominence, others lamented the immodesty of women who would display their skills so publicly. El Greco — Elizabethan England.
Elsa Schiaparelli — Empire Style, — Revolutionary conquests were echoed in the fine and decorative arts, in which figures of Fame and Victory abounded. The Empires of the Western Sudan. Strategically located between southern gold-producing regions and Saharan salt mines like Taghaza, the kingdoms of the western Sudan were well positioned to amass great wealth through the taxation of imports and exports. The legacy [of Ghana Wagadu ] is still celebrated in the name of the Republic of Ghana; apart from this, however, modern-day and ancient Ghana share no direct historical connections.
The Mali empire extended over an area larger than western Europe and consisted of numerous vassal kingdoms and provinces. Under the Askias, the Songhai empire reached its zenith, Timbuktu and Jenne flourished as centers of Islamic learning, and Islam was actively promoted. Enameled and Gilded Glass from Islamic Lands.
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The numerous enameled and gilded objects that have survived intact demonstrate that such vessels were highly prized and probably used for special occasions. While this skill is traditionally associated with femininity and the education of young girls, it was in fact practiced by both men and women, children and adults, paid professionals and talented amateurs. The books ran the gamut from princely folio size to pocket handbook, but most were modest volumes intended to guide tradesmen in constructing fashionable furniture.
English Silver, — Ernest Hemingway — and Art. Ernst Emil Herzfeld — in Persepolis. Ernst Emil Herzfeld — in Samarra. Etching offered students the ability to replicate their own paintings and thus build, from afar, their reputations at home. The etching revival inspired an interest in the medium that was sustained throughout the rest of the nineteenth century in France. Ethiopian Healing Scrolls.
Images on scrolls are nonrepresentational talismanic designs that reveal mysteries and enhance the effectiveness of written prayers. Etruscan Art. While some 13, Etruscan texts exist, most of these are very short. Consequently, much of what we know about the Etruscans comes not from historical evidence, but from their art and the archaeological record. Etruscan Language and Inscriptions. We have no surviving histories or literature in Etruscan, and the only extant writing that can be considered a text, as opposed to an inscription, was painted in ink on linen, preserved through the fortuitous reuse of the linen as wrappings for an Egyptian mummy.
Europe and the Age of Exploration. Europe and the Islamic World, — As the Europeans were introduced to many new kinds of textiles, carpets, spices, and clothing, so too was the Islamic world enriched. European Clocks in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. European Exploration of the Pacific, — Much of the European exploration of the Pacific was inspired by two obsessions, the search for the fastest routes to the spice-rich islands of the Moluccas as well as the theory that somewhere in the South Pacific lay a vast undiscovered southern continent.
European Revivalism. The nineteenth century was marked by an array of revival styles ranging from the classicism of Greece and Rome to the Renaissance and the later Rococo and Neoclassical styles. European Tapestry Production and Patronage, — The process of tapestry weaving, where every stitch is placed by hand, enabled the creation of complex figurative images on an enormous scale.
Lacking the traditions of commercial production and established markets that supported the continued growth and vitality of the Netherlandish and French industries, manufactories like the Medici, Mortlake, and Barberini workshops were dependent on the fortune of their founding patrons. Royal pendants and masquettes, openwork bracelets, and altar sculpture are some of the art forms that found broad dissemination and usage within this region. Exoticism in the Decorative Arts. The organic shapes, in particular, suggest that anatomical study and dissection played a significant part in the development of the characteristic idiom of the Auricular Style.
Natufian art, while it follows some of the same representational conventions of the European Paleolithic in its naturalistic and sensitive portrayal of animals, reflects a new awareness of individual identity and social life. The Face in Medieval Sculpture. The image of the head or face can have the capacity to instruct, but in certain forms it can possess a special power to protect, to heal, or even do harm.
Critical factors in the establishment and success of any such center were proximity to water which would provide energy as well as transport routes and the availability of metal either from nearby natural supplies or through trade. Fashion in European Armor. Armor was subject not only to technical advances but also to changes in taste as well as aesthetic and artistic expression within each period of its development.
Fashion in European Armor, — The equipment and appearance of twelfth- and early thirteenth-century knights and men-at-arms from England would have differed little from those of their French, German, or Italian counterparts. It is during the fifteenth century that certain characteristics in form, construction, and decoration can be seen, which are typical for different regions of Europe. The growing demand to fit out large standing armies with armor at low cost and, consequently, low quality drastically curbed the influence fashion had on armor. Fashion in Safavid Iran. Safavid dress is characterized by innovative color combinations, distinctive figural motifs on fabrics, and rich texture due to the extensive use of gold- and silver-wrapped threads.
The resulting overall ensemble of garments created an opulent and elegant look for both men and women. Fatimid Jewelry. Opulent jewels in the Fatimid period were worn by both men and women, and likely served more than just an ornamental purpose. The Fauve painters were the first to break with Impressionism as well as with older, traditional methods of perception.
Feudalism and Knights in Medieval Europe. Figural Representation in Islamic Art. As with other forms of Islamic ornamentation, artists freely adapted and stylized basic human and animal forms, giving rise to a great variety of figural-based designs. Filippino Lippi ca. Fire Gilding of Arms and Armor. The gilt surface must be polished and burnished, but when complete it is bright and lustrous, a fitting decoration for masterwork arms and armor.
South Italian wares, unlike Attic, were not widely exported and seem to have been intended solely for local consumption. The Flavian Dynasty 69—96 A. Flemish Harpsichords and Virginals. Under the influence of Joannes and Andreas Ruckers I, in the seventeenth century Antwerp reached its peak of production and began producing more uniform instruments. Flood Stories. Mesopotamian versions of the flood story may have had their beginnings in the annual spring flooding of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The paintings draw upon a wide range of sources, including pre-Mongol Persian and Arabic texts, Chinese handscrolls and woodblock illustrations, and Byzantine religious and historical manuscripts.
The Shahnama, with its rich detailing of the largely lost material culture of the Mongol court, presents a view of the contemporary Ilkhanid world, transforming a popular text into a splendid visual document of the period. A revealing sensuousness in the nude figure, largely absent in French art before this time, evolved at Fontainebleau. Food and Drink in European Painting, — In the fifteenth century, artists took increasing inspiration from the culture of antiquity and from the natural world, and began to depict objects such as fruits, sweets, and wine vessels, as well as flora and fauna, in both devotional and secular images.
Fra Angelico ca. Francisco de Goya — and the Spanish Enlightenment. Over the course of his long career, Goya moved from jolly and lighthearted to deeply pessimistic and searching in his paintings, drawings, etchings, and frescoes. Frank Lloyd Wright — Frederic Edwin Church — Frederic Remington — Frederick William MacMonnies — The French Academy in Rome.
French Art Deco. During the Art Deco period there was a fairly wide acceptance by the consumer public of many of the ideas put forth by avant-garde painters and sculptors, especially as they were adapted by designers and applied to fashionable luxury objects that encapsulated the sophisticated tastes of the times. French Art Pottery. Considered the father of French art pottery, Ernest Chaplet — played an influential role in nearly all genres of the movement.
In the still small but gay and colorful pavilion devised by Le Vau, now his favorite architect, the young sovereign surrounded himself with sensuous Italian or Flemish cabinets. French Faience. Faience, or tin-glazed and enameled earthenware, first emerged in France during the sixteenth century, reaching widespread usage among elite patrons during the seventeenth and early eighteenth century, prior to the establishment of soft-paste porcelain factories. One of the most gifted and successful cabinetmakers of the second half of the eighteenth century, Riesener was the favorite of Queen Marie Antoinette.
Since only the menuisier was obliged to sign his work, the names of the other craftsmen are, unfortunately, rarely known. French Porcelain in the Eighteenth Century. The soft-paste porcelain factory founded at Vincennes in about was to dominate not only the French ceramic industry, but also the entirety of European ceramics for the second half of the eighteenth century.
French Silver in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Fresco painting from the later Byzantine period reveals much about the mobility of artistic techniques and styles. This growing vogue for the Orient resulted in the chinoiserie garden style, usually expressed by adding Chinese structures to the garden. Throughout the ages, public sculptures have served as didactic tools, offering moral, patriotic, and cultural instruction. Symbols of pride, they have proclaimed cities as tastemakers in civic and aesthetic matters.
Scholars specializing in Fulani culture believe that some of the imagery depicts rituals that are still practiced by contemporary Fulani people. Funerary Vases in Southern Italy and Sicily. The king favored carved and gilded wood furniture and commissioned a broad range of objects in solid silver that included tall candlestands, massive tables, benches and stools, chandeliers, and mirror frames. Synthesis of foreign styles with Indian forms is typical of the multi-ethnic character of Gandharan taste.
Gardens in the French Renaissance. Gardens played many roles in French society—and thus found increasing representations in art—as places for relaxation, for music and dance, for poetry and learning, for horticulture, as symbolic spaces for myth and allegory, and finally as decorative motifs. Gardens of Western Europe, — Seventeenth-century explorations of the world seas and subsequent advances in natural history and botanical sciences directly affected the appearance of gardens. Genre Painting in Northern Europe. Geometric Abstraction. Geometric abstraction, through the Cubist process of purifying art of the vestiges of visual reality, focused on the inherent two-dimensional features of painting.
Geometric and Archaic Cyprus. The most important development on Cyprus between about and B. Geometric Art in Ancient Greece. Geometric Greece experienced a cultural revival of its historical past through epic poetry and the visual arts. Geometric Patterns in Islamic Art. These abstract designs not only adorn the surfaces of monumental Islamic architecture but also function as the major decorative element on a vast array of objects of all types. George Inness — Inness distinguished himself from the Hudson River School in the profound degree to which philosophical and spiritual ideas inspired his work.
Ultimately, he became the leading American artist-philosopher of his generation. George Washington: Man, Myth, Monument. Georges Seurat — and Neo-Impressionism. Artists of the Neo-Impressionist circle renounced the random spontaneity of Impressionism in favor of a measured painting technique grounded in science and the study of optics. Gerard David born about , died David worked in a progressive, even enterprising, mode, casting off his late medieval heritage and proceeding with a certain purity of vision in an age of transition. German and Austrian Porcelain in the Eighteenth Century.
The Ghent Altarpiece. Gian Lorenzo Bernini — Gilbert Stuart — No contemporary information is known about Gilgamesh, who, if he was in fact an historical person, would have lived around B. Giovanni Battista Piranesi — One of the greatest printmakers of the eighteenth century, Piranesi always considered himself an architect. Giovanni Battista Tiepolo — Glass from Islamic Lands.
In the field of Islamic art, glass is a craft that often rose to excellence but has been largely overlooked by art historians. Combined with other sumptuous materials such as wood, marble, and other decorative stones, these glass ornaments transformed the interiors of churches, mosques, palaces, and shrines.
The Gods and Goddesses of Canaan. Although there existed no single state theology, the major gods reflect local geographical concerns about the fertility of the earth and the importance of water as well as relationships to the sky and the underworld. Gold in Ancient Egypt. Although gold as a commodity appears to have been largely controlled by the king, Egyptians of less than royal status also owned gold jewelry.
Gold in Asante Courtly Arts. Cast gold ornaments exhibiting imagery of political and martial supremacy dangled from sword hilts and scabbards enhanced the prestige of those who wore them. Gold of the Indies. During the earliest years of European expansion onto the American continents, the search for gold was one of the driving factors in the exploration and colonization of the vast lands.
French furniture of this period was the collaborative effort of various artists and craftsmen who worked according to strictly enforced guild regulations. The Golden Harpsichord of Michele Todini — Todini is best known for constructing the complex musical mechanisms that he displayed in his Galleria Armonica e Matematica in Rome, one of the first museums of musical instruments. From the time of their construction, these tombs have stood as symbols of political authority and cultural grandeur.
Goryeo Celadon. The term celadon is thought to derive from the name of the hero in a seventeenth-century French pastoral comedy. Gothic Art. With growing assurance, architects in northern France, and soon all over Europe, competed in a race to conquer height. The Grand Tour. The Graphic Art of Max Klinger. Great Plains Indians Musical Instruments. While other instruments, such as whistles and rattles, can be used to augment the music of the Great Plains, the drum most often accompanies the human voice. Great Serpent Mound.
Effigy mounds, earthworks in the shape of animals and birds, were raised in North America in areas that now correspond to parts of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Illinois, Iowa, and Ohio. Great Zimbabwe 11th—15th Century. The Greater Ottoman Empire, — Greek Art in the Archaic Period. Greek artists rapidly assimilated foreign styles and motifs into new portrayals of their own myths and customs, thereby forging the foundations of Archaic and Classical Greek art.
Greek Gods and Religious Practices. Ancient Greek religious practice, essentially conservative in nature, was based on time-honored observances, many rooted in the Bronze Age — B. Of all the Greek vase shapes, the hydria probably received the most artistically significant treatment in terracotta and in bronze.
Over time, reductive simplicity emerged as a way of conveying an aura of the antique, a strategy that was further developed in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Greek Terracotta Figurines with Articulated Limbs. The Guitar. The vihuela and guitar existed simultaneously until the seventeenth century, when the popularity of the guitar superseded the vihuela.
Gustave Courbet — Gustave Le Gray — Hagia Sophia, — This central dome was often interpreted by contemporary commentators as the dome of heaven itself. The Halaf Period — B. The Halaf potters used different sources of clay from their neighbors and achieved outstanding elaboration and elegance of design with their superior quality ware. Han Dynasty B. Talhoffer specialized in a specific type of combat, and his work involves the whole process of battle, from the entry of the contestants into the field of combat, to the death of one of the participants.
Hasanlu in the Iron Age. The remains discovered at Hasanlu demonstrate that it was a major local center of commerce and artistic production with close ties to other political and creative centers of the Near East during the early first millennium B. Haute Couture. Couture has long stood as the modern equilibrium between the garment as exquisite aggregate and the burgeoning notions of fashion as a system. Heian Period — Fujiwara courtiers encouraged an aura of courtly sophistication and sensitivity in all of their activities, including the visual and literary arts, and even religious practice.
Hellenistic and Roman Cyprus. The wealth of its natural resources and its strategic position on the principal maritime route linking Greece and the Aegean with the Levant and Egypt made Cyprus a major prize for the warring Hellenistic rulers. Hellenistic Jewelry. A wide variety of jewelry types were produced in the Hellenistic period-earrings, necklaces, pendants, pins, bracelets, armbands, thigh bands, finger rings, wreaths, diadems, and other elaborate hair ornaments.
Hendrick Goltzius — Henri Cartier-Bresson — To me, photography is the simultaneous recognition, in a fraction of a second, of the significance of an event as well as of a precise organization of forms which gave that event its proper expression. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec — An aristocratic, alcoholic dwarf known for his louche lifestyle, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec created art that was inseparable from his legendary life. Henri Matisse — Heroes in Italian Mythological Prints. Just as the emperor Augustus had claimed descent from Aeneas, a son of Venus, so many Italian princes traced their ancestry to the participants in the Trojan War or sought to equate their own accomplishments with the deeds of these heroes.
Hinduism and Hindu Art. Although a Hindu temple is dedicated to the glory of a deity and is aimed at helping the devotee toward moksha , its walls might justifiably contain sculptures that reflect the other three goals of life.