Clarifies the differences between block scope, file scope, prototype scope and function scope leading to how the compiler resolves linking to identifiers.
- Pointers on C by Kenneth Reek
Additionally, the chapter provides a lucid explanation of how variable values are stored according its storage class. There are 3 possible places to store variables: ordinary memory heap , on the runtime stack, and in hardware registers. Each type of storage class contains different characteristics in terms of variable initialisation.
The author clearly explains how the storage classes for variables can be affected through scope, as well as the use of the static and register keywords. Describes the various operators in C that support bitwise shifting, arithmetic, relational and logical operations. The author also provides good advice when working around the lack of a boolean type in C.
ISBN 10: 0673999866
The difference and interchangeability between L-values and R-values are clarified:. A very well written chapter going into details of what C pointers are. This is the best explanation of memory pointers I have seen so far.
The author explains the topics of pointers, pointers to pointers, indirection and L-values superbly in a visual style that manages to incorporate pointer arithmetic and operator precedence into the mix. This is just the start of the focus on pointers as the rest of the book makes extensive of pointers.
Syntactical explanation of function prototypes and explains how to implement variable argument functions. Highlights the passing-by-value semantics for function arguments. The interesting part of this behaviour is that it is consistent with non-scalar values such as structs or arrays. Discusses the memory usage, computational tradeoffs between recursive and iterative functions with examples calculating factorials and Fibonacci numbers, making a compelling case for favouring iterative algorithms over recursive ones.
Expands the discussion from the previous chapter on the concept of array names containing pointer constants address of the first element of the array as values. Highlights the differences between pointers and subscripts in the context of arrays. Discusses how pointers may be more efficient than subscripts by analysing the generated assembler code, concluding that optimising the assembler code should be taken only as an extreme measure.
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Illustrates details on the storage order of arrays which includes memory layouts for multi-dimensional arrays. Clarifies the definition of a C string a sequence of zero or more characters followed by a NUL byte ; works through the usage of both restricted and unrestricted string functions. Briefly describes character functions for classification and transformation, in addition to demonstrating functions for working with arbitrary sequences of bytes in memory.
Pointers on C
Describes syntax for declaring structures and accessing members. Offers an approach to defining self referential structures, and the use of incomplete declarations for declaring mutually dependent structures. Another easy to understand visual explanation of accessing structures and structure members with pointers, including how structures are stored in memory and the implications with architectures that require boundary alignment e.
Discussion of Bit Fields, Unions and Variant Records with applicability and tradeoffs in terms of maintenance and memory usage. Explains how programs can obtain and manipulate chunks of memory with malloc , free , calloc , realloc. Cautions against common errors with dynamic memory allocation and memory leaks. Here the author walks the reader through the design and implementation of a linked list. The author implements the abstract data structure as a singly linked list first, then modifies it into a doubly linked list.
As is already evident from the book so far, the author is fantastic at explaining his thoughts in a straightforward manner during the design and implementation process. Introduces the concept of multiple levels of indirection that pointers can have and explains in detail advanced declarations of pointer variables in gradual levels of complexity.
Explains pointers to functions and how they can be used for callback functions and jump tables; processing command line arguments with examples. The author includes an interesting way to perform pointer arithmetic and indirection with string literals. Describes the predefined symbols and directives provided by the preprocessor as well as defining macros.
The precedence order of an expression with an occurrence of a macro that evaluates expressions may change, post macro substitution. In-depth treatment to working with text and binary streams using stdio.
This chapter contains explanations and examples of the following categories of functions from the standard library:. The functions in setjmp. The types of work available in signal handlers are limited. If the signal is asynchronous triggered external to the program , no library functions should be called other than signal because their results are undefined in this context. To be truly safe, about all that a signal handler can do is set one of these variables and return.
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The rest of the program must periodically examine the variable to see if a signal has occurred. This chapter is similar to chapter 12, except the focus is on designing and implementing the stack, queue and binary tree abstract data types. The author quickly introduces each data structure and moves into design and implementation of the ADT. The author generates assembly code from compiling a C source file to determine:.
This chapter is highly technical and will take multiple readings to digest, and apply to other architectures and compilers. This preview shows page 1 - 7 out of pages. Subscribe to view the full document.
I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero. University of Central Punjab, Lahore. EEN To make the program easier to read, which in turn makes it easier to maintain later. It is easier to see what a named constant represents, if it is well named, than a literal constant, which merely displays its value.
The programmer can put in subscript checks where they are needed; in places where the sub- script is already known to be correct for example, from having been checked earlier , there is no overhead expended in checking it again. But the real reason they are omitted is the fact that sub- scripts are implemented as pointer expressions, which are described in Chapter 8.